The Eight-Stage Process of Creating Major Change

1. ESTABLISHING A SENSE OF URGENCY

 • Examining the market and competitive realities

• Identifying and discussing crises, potential crises or major opportunities

 2. CREATING THE GUIDING COALITION

 • Putting together a group with enough power to lead the change

• Getting the group to work together as a team

 3. DEVELOPING A VISION AND STRATEGY

 • Creating a vision to help direct the change effort

• Developing strategies for achieving that vision

 4. COMMUNICATING THE CHANGE VISION

 • Using every vehicle possible to constantly communicate the new vision and strategies

• Having the guiding coalition role model the behaviour expected of employees

 5. EMPOWERING BROAD-BASED ACTION

 • Getting rid of obstacles

• Changing systems or structures that undermine the change vision

• Encouraging risk-taking and non-traditional ideas, activities and actions

 6. GENERATING SHORT-TERM WINS

 • Planning for visible improvements in performance, or “wins”

• Creating those wins

• Visibly recognizing and rewarding people who made wins possible

 7. CONSOLIDATING GAINS AND PRODUCING MORE CHANGE

 • Using increased credibility to change all systems, structures and policies that don’t fit together and don’t fit the transformation vision 

• Hiring, promoting and developing people who can implement the change vision

• Reinvigorating the process with new projects, themes and change agents

 8. INSTITUTIONALIZING NEW APPROACHES IN THE CULTURE

 • Creating better performance through customer- and productivity-oriented behavior  more      and better leadership and more effective management

• Articulating the connections between new behaviours and organizational success

• Developing means to ensure leadership development and succession

Source: Leading change, by J P Kotter, 1996, Boston: Harvard Business School Press

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